The word ‘samhradh’ can sometimes cause difficulty for people as it can look quite different depending on the circumstances. Firstly, It is a masculine noun – ainmfhocal firinscneach. When we just want to say ‘the summer’ (nominative case) we use ‘an’ which means ‘the’. Eg. An samhradh.
But then sometimes, the word ‘samhradh’ will look different and it could be because of the genetive case (an tuiseal ginideach). There are a few different reasons that the genetive case comes into play.
E.g. When we use the word ‘of’ in Irish the sentence or phrase will be in the genetive case. So, when saying míonna an tsamhraidh, literally meaning ‘the months ‘of’ summer’, the ‘of’ will cause changes to the word ‘samhradh’.
So from the example above you’ll see that the genetive case (tuiseal ginideach) has caused the word ‘samhradh’ to be slenderized meaning it has an ‘i’ at the end. Also, you can see that there is a ‘t’ before the word. That’s because we are also using the word ‘the’ (an) in that sentence.. E.g míonna an tsamhraidh – ‘the summer months’ or literally meaning ‘the months of summer’. The changes the genetive case make to a noun depends on the noun (whether it is masculine or feminine) and which declension of nouns it belongs to. ▪️
Sometimes you’ll see a séimhiú in the word too and that’s because the noun that preceeds it is feminine. E.g Féile shamhraidh or Aimsir shamhraidh.